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The Pollution Solution
as published in GCI magazine April 2007
“When it comes to skin firming, we know that many of the actives in these types of products usually take a while to be effective,” says Maria Tolchinsky, marketing manager, National Starch Personal Care. “Yet, consumers generally expect to see a benefit almost immediately. Formulators of these products can consider strategies for building in both immediate benefits and long-term benefits. National Starch Personal Care covers the need for immediate skin firming with Flexan II polymer, a water soluble film former that allows the consumer to see a firming effect shortly after a serum is applied.”
Moisture and increased skin elasticity are benefits designed to meet the expectations of the antiaging market. “Moisturizers marketed under the antiaging banner need to be formulated for efficacy, and at the same time these products need a sensory profile that caters to the high expectations of the baby boomer generation,” said Tolchinsky. “Achieving both of these formulation requirements in an antiaging product can be a real challenge. To help formulators capitalize in these areas National Starch Personal Care introduced its Hydrovance moisturizing agent,” added Tolchinsky.
According to the company, studies have shown that Hydrovance offers moisturizing efficacy similar to glycerin, without imparting tackiness to a formulation. “Hydrovance moisturizing agent works by diffusing into the stratum corneum, effectively increasing skin hydration and skin elasticity, with an aesthetically pleasing after-feel,” said Tolchinsky.
Prevention and Optimization
Since premature skin aging is often attributed to sun exposure, one of the best approaches to healthy skin is prevention, according to National Starch. “In other words, take cover with efficacious daily sun protection formulas containing at least SPF-15,” says Tolchinsky, adding that National Starch Personal Care can help makers of these products produce formulas that help maintain actives on the skin longer with film forming polymers. Dermacryl 79 and Dermacryl AQF, both film forming polymers, can be considered in daily skin protection products because they are polymeric offerings rather than wax based technologies and provide a non-heavy after-feel. “Consumers are looking for longer lasting products, providing us opportunities to support the skin care segment with film forming polymers that fit very well in today’s formulas,” Tolchinsky added. In taking a preventive approach to skin aging, whatever the cause may be, National Starch said formulators will need to look closely at concepts extending the effectiveness of actives beyond one or two hours.
To improve skin tones and health, Tolchinsky noted that numerous actives tested in the laboratory as beneficial on skin often proved difficult to formulate in an emulsion based product. “Rather than eliminate an otherwise beneficial active from a formulation, consider a non-aqueous delivery system. Dissolvable films are anhydrous systems, which can be considered as a viable option for stabilizing actives that are traditionally unstable in aqueous systems,” Tolchinsky added. In addition, for a variety of facial and other skin concerns, “Dissolvable films have significant potential in applications that require targeted delivery of actives on select areas of skin, such as under the eyes, on lips, or even wrinkles. This delivery mechanism can also be very useful in cleansing and moisturizing applications.”
In taking a preventive approach to skin aging, whatever the cause may be, National Starch says formulators will need to look closely at concepts extending the effectiveness of actives beyond one or two hours. “Film former technology has the potential to be an enabling technology for longer lasting products. Formulators primarily use film former technology in beach wear sunscreen products, but select forms of polymeric based film formers can be considered in a wide range of skin care products to achieve formulation goals,” said Tolchinsky.
The signs of aging are no longer solely evident as fine lines and wrinkles, according to Croda. Skin dryness, loss of elasticity and texture, decrease in thickness, compromised barrier, and skin discolorations and imperfections are among the signs of aging skin. Products that can delay or correct these “other” visual clues are increasingly desired. “Renovage, recently launched by Sederma, was designed to correct all of these other signs of aging,” stated the company. It is said to have been clinically proven to improve skin tone and elasticity, reduce the appearance of dilated pores, strengthen the skin’s barrier function, reduce skin dryness and discoloration, including redness and sunspots, and diminish fine lines and wrinkles, while improving the overall evenness of skin texture. In addition, Arlatone Dioic DCA also can assist in the formulation of new products addressing those types of concerns, and is said to help provide the appearance of even skin tone, smoother texture and radiance. It is a plant-based ingredient that may be used in foundations, concealers, day and night creams, skin treatment systems and moisturizers.
Sederma also offers antiaging effects with its ingredient Venuceane, which was tested in a six-month study on the Island of Mauritius under accelerated aging conditions. Venuceane was said to save the skin from aging five years in six months. By evaluating the appearance of various signs of aging and utilizing the VISIA system with its age database, it was shown that the placebo group aged by approximately three years while the Venuceane treated group had an overall improvement, thereby reversing the age of the skin by approximately two years. The ingredient, which contains heat stable enzymes and inexhaustible enzymes, is derived from deep-sea bacteria and, according to the company, enables the protection of the essential structures of the skin from oxidative free radical degradation.
Botanical extracts are increasingly evident in formulations designed to help prevent and correct the signs of aging. The Phytotal line of botanical extracts is comprised of blends of botanicals, combined to provide clinically proven results. Two complexes are available in the area of antiaging–Phytotal AW for reducing fine lines and wrinkles, and Phytotal FM, which targets elasticity, tone and skin suppleness. Targeted delivery is key to performance. Arlasolve DMI-PC is designed to enhance delivery of actives, especially water-soluble actives, offering an improvement in actives delivery in the epidermis as high as 50%. According to Croda, “Arlasolve DMI-PC enables formulation of active products, not simply products that contain actives.”
Firming and Toning
Regardless of how slim or fit, stretch marks can still appear on any woman, and often such treatments as seaweed wraps with vitamin-, and mineral-rich algae, as well as massage and tightening treatments utilizing caffeine, have addressed this area. Clarins has recently launched a new targeted treatment with a technologically-advanced formula that is said to help prevent stretch marks from forming and also reduces the appearance of stretch marks that are less than two years old. It is also said to help protect and revitalize collagen and elastin fibers to prevent skin slackening, serves as a colorant and is fragrance-free. The formulation features Centella extract (a plant well known in traditional Asian medicine) to protect and revitalize collagen and elastin fibers. Crowberry, siegesbeckia and olive extracts are included to help comfort, calm and repair skin while maintaining healthy support tissues, thereby reducing the size of stretch marks and miscoloring.
Hydrating and Polishing
An emphasis on skin quality, thickness and overall health has prompted the use of products that enhance skin’s smoothness, hydrate and improve elasticity. Two products from Juara Skincare are among the latest entries for toning and polishing. Tamarind Tea Hydrating Toner is used for softening and soothing, and contains Indonesian tamarind. The toner is an infusion of white, green and black tea, which deliver antioxidants to the skin. Vitamin-rich bran extract provides calming benefits, minimizes redness and other signs of stress, while an extra dose of hyaluronic acid delivers added hydration. The product is alcohol, paraben and oil free. Candlenut Body Polish for Juara contains candlenut oil in a surfactant-free formulation that is designed to keep skin glowing with gentle exfoliation. The exfoliating grains are contained in a cream that may be used in the shower.
Global influences are also evident in the newest entry from Cape Town, South Africa, called Bio-Oil. The product—an advanced formula designed to treat a multitude of skin concerns—is used to minimize scars and stretch marks, even skin tone, nourish aging skin, and lubricate dryness and flakiness with a rapidly absorbed “dry oil.” The formulation includes vitamins A and E, calendula, lavender and rosemary oils, and chamomile extract, delivered through PurCellin Oil—a laboratory recreation of duck preen gland oil, noted for its absorption and spreadability. Bio-Oil contains no preservatives and is non-comedogenic. It is used to help improve skin elasticity and to aid severely dehydrated skin. Notably, it is used in the burn unit of the Children’s Hospital in Cape Town, as it is said to relieve dry skin and itching associated with burns.
ISP offers an assortment of functional actives that target a range of specific symptoms. “Vital ET is a unique bio-functional complex of tocopheryl phosphates that helps reduce many of the symptoms associated with sensitive skin—such as redness, irritation, swelling and itching,” said Penny Antonopoulos, global personal care marketing manager, International Specialty Products. The range of bio-functional actives includes biopeptides and synthetic peptides that mimic skin’s essential physiological factors.
Skin Protection and Antiaging
As skin ages and its structure and chemistry are altered, it loses elasticity, firmness and softness—causing wrinkles to appear. Therefore, a number of ingredients and technologies have been launched to address soothing and protecting skin, as well as offer innovative delivery. Betty Santonnat, global marketing manager, active ingredients, Degussa Personal Care, noted the recent launch of TEGO Smooth Complex (a selection of active ingredients for skin protection and skin soothing) and TEGO Derm CBS, an antiaging active designed for protection and repair of photo-aged skin.
“Hydroregulative ingredients incorporated into cosmetic formulations provide the skin with moisture and help the skin to hold it,” said Peter Lersch, head of R&D, care ingredients/biotechnology, Degussa Personal Care. “TEGO Smooth Complex is a unique blend of low and high molecular weight components that reduce skin roughness by enhancing the removal of old squamae. The skin becomes smoother and appears more radiant.” Lersch cites TEGO’s water holding capability (supported by its polyglutamic acid polypeptide and trimethylglycine amino acid) and a low-molecular weight scleroglucan in its ability to soothe the skin, reduce inflammation and afford sun protection and repair.
Lersch cited independent efficacy studies confirming the ability of TEGO Derm CBS, a ready-to-use, oil soluble solution of phytosphingosine SLC (a patented derivative of naturally occurring phytosphingosine) to help minimize the signs of aging several ways, including “supporting epidermal cell differentiation, skin repair and skin renewal; improving the conditions of mature or photo-aged dermis by boosting collagen synthesis and reducing its degradation; reinforcing the dermal-epidermal junctions; and by soothing inflamed skin.”
DNA Repair Melds Genomics and Beauty
There is also a lot of buzz about the bio-engineered ingredients designed to encourage the repair of the skin’s DNA, said to be key to antiaging. The latest words are ultrasomes and photosomes, said to treat photo-aged skin by targeting the source of skin imbalance. In the December 2006 issue of Cosmetic Surgery Times David H. McDaniel, a Virginia-based dermatologist, suggests that the ability to individualize cosmeceuticals to a unique DNA and lifestyle is just around the corner. McDaniel was quoted as saying, “We need a radically different approach to protecting against premature aging. The best protection should include an effective SPF, a potent antioxidant with high EPF (environmental protection factor) and, for those with strong sun exposure, the new DNA repair enzymes (ultasomes and photosomes).”
Daniel Yarosh, PhD, a molecular biologist who specializes in gene repair, formed AGI Dermatics to study DNA repair, the impact of the sun on the immune system and cell-signaling in skin. One of the outcomes of the Human Genome Project, said Yarosh, was an improved ability to study the impact of UV rays on the skin’s DNA. The damage caused to the skin by UV rays may include photo-aging symptoms like wrinkles, uneven texture and dull tone. Previously, skin damage from the past was thought beyond repair without drastic measures, however, “The new message from the genomics revolution is that skin can indeed be repaired and re-programmed. The harmful effects of UV-induced damage are not irreversible,” said Yarosh.
AGI Dermatics developed and tested a range of ingredients in clinical studies. The ingredients are said to be the building blocks for regenerating DNA and sustaining skin health. One drug, dimericine, is a skin lotion awaiting FDA approval as a prescription to reduce incidence of pre-malignancies and skin cancer. AGI also launched a seven-product skin care line, Remergent, with a similar concept for skin repair. Available from medical professionals, it is said to target DNA repair, barrier building, pigmentary issues and other skin concerns. The Remergent DNA Repair Formula is a serum formulated to encourage the skin to self-correct.
Read The Pollution Solution for details evolving technological advancement in antipollutants that address skin protection and pre-emptively alleviate signs of aging.